Relationships between brokers and the public
(1)When engaged in any of the activities enumerated in section 12-10-201 (6), a broker may act in any transaction as a single agent or transaction-broker. The broker’s general duties and obligations arising from that relationship shall be disclosed to the seller and the buyer or to the landlord and the tenant pursuant to section 12-10-408.
(2)A broker shall be considered a transaction-broker unless a single agency relationship is established through a written agreement between the broker and the party or parties to be represented by the broker.
(3)A broker may work with a single party in separate transactions pursuant to different relationships including, but not limited to, selling one property as a seller’s agent and working with that seller in buying another property as a transaction-broker or buyer’s agent, but only if the broker complies with this part 4 in establishing the relationships for each transaction.
(4)Intentionally left blank —Ed.
(a)A broker licensed pursuant to part 2 of this article 10, whether acting as a single agent or transaction-broker, may complete standard forms for use in a real estate transaction, including standard forms intended to convey personal property as part of the real estate transaction, when a broker is performing the activities enumerated or referred to in section 12-10-201 (6) in the transaction.
(b)As used in this subsection (4), “standard form” means:
(I)A form promulgated by the real estate commission for current use by brokers, also referred to in this section as a “commission-approved form”;
(II)A form drafted by a licensed Colorado attorney representing the broker, employing broker, or brokerage firm, so long as the name of the attorney or law firm and the name of the broker, employing broker, or brokerage firm for whom the form is prepared are included on the form itself;
(III)A form provided by a party to the transaction if the broker is acting in the transaction as either a transaction-broker or as a single agent for the party providing the form to the broker, so long as the broker retains written confirmation that the form was provided by a party to the transaction;
(IV)A form prescribed by a governmental agency, a quasi-governmental agency, or a lender regulated by state or federal law, if use of the form is mandated by the agency or lender;
(V)A form issued with the written approval of the Colorado Bar Association or its successor organization and specifically designated for use by brokers in Colorado, so long as the form is used within any guidelines or conditions specified by the Colorado Bar Association or successor organization in connection with the use of the form;
(VI)A form used for disclosure purposes only, if the disclosure does not purport to waive or create any legal rights or obligations affecting any party to the transaction and if the form provides only information concerning either:
(A)The real estate involved in the transaction specifically; or
(B)The geographic area in which the real estate is located generally;
(VII)A form prescribed by a title company that is providing closing services in a transaction for which the broker is acting either as a transaction-broker or as a single agent for a party to the transaction; or
(VIII)A letter of intent created or prepared by a broker, employing broker, or brokerage firm, so long as the letter of intent states on its face that it is nonbinding and creates no legal rights or obligations.
(c)A broker shall use a commission-approved form when such a form exists and is appropriate for the transaction. A broker’s use of any standard form described in subsection (4)(b)(III) or (4)(b)(IV) of this section must be limited to inserting transaction-specific information within the form. In using standard forms described in subsection (4)(b)(II), (4)(b)(V), (4)(b)(VI), (4)(b)(VII), or (4)(b)(VIII) of this section, the broker may also advise the parties as to effects thereof, and the broker’s use of those standard forms must be appropriate for the transaction and the circumstances in which they are used. In any transaction described in this subsection (4), the broker shall advise the parties that the forms have important legal consequences and that the parties should consult legal counsel before signing the forms.
(5)Nothing contained in this section shall prohibit the public from entering into written contracts with any broker that contain duties, obligations, or responsibilities that are in addition to those specified in this part 4.
(6)Intentionally left blank —Ed.
(a)If a real estate brokerage firm has more than one licensed natural person, the employing broker or an individual broker employed or engaged by that employing broker shall be designated to work with the seller, landlord, buyer, or tenant as a designated broker. The employing broker may designate more than one of its individual brokers to work with a seller, landlord, buyer, or tenant.
(b)The brokerage relationship established between the seller, landlord, buyer, or tenant and a designated broker, including the duties, obligations, and responsibilities of that relationship, shall not extend to the employing broker nor to any other broker employed or engaged by that employing broker who has not been so designated and shall not extend to the firm, partnership, limited liability company, association, corporation, or other entity that employs the broker.
(c)A real estate broker may have designated brokers working as single agents for a seller or landlord and a buyer or tenant in the same real estate transaction without creating dual agency for the employing real estate broker, or any broker employed or engaged by that employing real estate broker.
(d)An individual broker may be designated to work for both a seller or landlord and a buyer or tenant in the same transaction as a transaction-broker for both, as a single agent for the seller or landlord treating the buyer or tenant as a customer, or as a single agent for a buyer or tenant treating the seller or landlord as a customer, but not as a single agent for both. The applicable designated broker relationship shall be disclosed in writing to the seller or landlord and buyer or tenant in a timely manner pursuant to rules promulgated by the real estate commission.
(e)A designated broker may work with a seller or landlord in one transaction and work with a buyer or tenant in another transaction.
(f)When a designated broker serves as a single agent pursuant to section 12-10-404 or 12-10-405, there shall be no imputation of knowledge to the employing or employed broker who has not been so designated.
(g)The extent and limitations of the brokerage relationship with the designated broker shall be disclosed to the seller, landlord, buyer, or tenant working with that designated broker pursuant to section 12-10-408.
(7)No seller, buyer, landlord, or tenant shall be vicariously liable for a broker’s acts or omissions that have not been approved, directed, or ratified by the seller, buyer, landlord, or tenant.
(8)Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the employing broker’s or firm’s responsibility to supervise licensees employed by the broker or firm nor to shield the broker or firm from vicarious liability.
Section 12-10-403 — Relationships between brokers and the public - definition - rules,
https://leg.colorado.gov/sites/default/files/images/olls/crs2023-title-12.pdf (accessed Oct. 20, 2023).